The process of modernization of the Romanian society, started in the last two decades of the 19th century, accelerated at the beginning of the 20th century, as a result of the appearance in the rural area of numerous credit institutions and savings houses. An important role in the modernization process of the Romanian society in the parts of Arad was played by „Victoria”, a credit and savings institute joint stock company founded by a group of intellectuals in the area in 1887. At the beginning of the 20th century, „Victoria” was the second Romanian bank in AustriaHungary in size and contributed to the establishment of other credit institutions in the Romanian villages in the Arad Plain. Through the appearance of credit institutes, the elements of capitalism entered the rural Romanian world. Credit institutions in rural areas will stand out as some of the most important institutions that supported the needs of Romanian society, which was going through a process of modernization, but also faced a number of problems in the early twentieth century, when the Hungarian political class implemented the harshest denationalization measures.